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There were also a few generalized models that were used several factors in the study. These factors ranged from age, refractive error and cataract status, which were also used for assessment to determine if they associated with VA, contrast sensitivity, or even simple dry eye signs/symptoms. It was then that the Hochberg procedure was used to make sure there were multiple accounts for comparing research and data.

List of results from:


High-contrast logMAR VA

Contrast Sensitivity

Tear film debris

TBUT – Tear breakup time

Corneal fluorescein staining

Schirmer test scores


The results of the study were very interesting when it came to the data gathered.

During the study, when it came to the 487 participants of the study, there were a few VA scores that had an average of 39.4 or worse as well as 32.4 for those with VA that were better adjusted.  These scores, however, were only associated with visual acuity and not contrast sensitivity which the case study was also focusing on. This study also had a focus on severe meibomian glands as well as abnormal secretions that were usually associated with the averages associated with the worse means of contrast sensitivity. Lastly, there was a longer tear breakup time that was more closely associated with the better scores of contrast sensitivity as well by 1.57 and 1.51 seconds.

Dr. Joseph Cohen O.D.
Woodland Hills Optometrist
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(818) 345-3937
Providing service in English and Farsi
19737 Ventura Blvd., Suite 201, Woodland Hills, CA 91364